Sport-Olympic.com

  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  

1912  Stockholm Summer Olympics

1912 Summer Olympics - The Results (Swimming)

Swimming at the 1912 Stockholm Summer Games

 

 

Host City: Stockholm, Sweden
Date Started: July 6, 1912
Date Finished: July 15, 1912
Events: 9

Participants: 120 (93 men and 27 women) from 17 countries
Youngest Participant: SWE Greta Carlsson (14 years, 1 days)
Oldest Participant: AUT Zeno von Singalewicz (36 years, 329 days)
Most Medals (Athlete): ANZ Harold Hardwick and GBR Jack Hatfield (3 medals)
Most Medals (Country): GER Germany (7 medals)

 

Participating nations

A total of 120 swimmers (93 men and 27 women) from 17 nations (men from 17 nations - women from 8 nations) competed at the Stockholm Games:

  •  Australasia (9) (men:7 women:2)
  •  Austria (8) (men:3 women:5)
  •  Belgium (5) (men:4 women:1)
  •  Canada (1) (men:1 women:0)
  •  Denmark (1) (men:1 women:0)
  •  Finland (6) (men:4 women:2)
  •  France (3) (men:3 women:0)
  •  Germany (17) (men:13 women:4)
  •  Great Britain (18) (men:12 women:6)
  •  Greece (1) (men:1 women:0)
  •  Hungary (8) (men:8 women:0)
  •  Italy (2) (men:2 women:0)
  •  Norway (5) (men:4 women:1)
  •  Russia (4) (men:4 women:0)
  •  South Africa (1) (men:1 women:0)
  •  Sweden (24) (men:18 women:6)
  •  United States (7) (men:7 women:0)
  

Overview

Swimming has been contested at every Olympic Games of the modern era and 1912 at Stockholm was no exception. But the big swimming news in Stockholm was the inclusion of events for women. While women had competed at the Olympics in 1900-1908 in archery, croquet, golf, tennis, and yachting, this was the first time that women were admitted to the Olympic Program in one of the “major” sports on the program. It would not be until 1928 that women would be allowed to compete in the Olympic Games in track & field athletics.

This decision was made by the IOC in Luxembourg in 1910 at their 11th Session. The IOC Membership voted unanimously to accept women in Olympic competition in gymnastics, swimming, and tennis. Originally, the Swedish Olympic Committee planned women’s competitions in the 100 metre freestyle and in plain high diving (see Diving). Eventually, it was decided to also allow women to compete in a freestyle relay race.

The swimming competitions were held at Djurgårdsbrunnsviken, an inlet not far from the Stockholm city center. A stadium set-up was built in the inlet and a swimming course of 100 metres was arranged, bounded on one side by land, on the opposite end by a steamboat pier, and enclosed on each side by pontoons.

  

Medal summary

Men's events

Women's events
Event Gold Silver Bronze
100 m freestyle  Duke Kahanamoku (USA)  Cecil Healy (ANZ)  Ken Huszagh (USA)
400 m freestyle  George Hodgson (CAN)  John Hatfield (GBR)  Harold Hardwick (ANZ)
1500 m freestyle  George Hodgson (CAN)  John Hatfield (GBR)  Harold Hardwick (ANZ)
100 m backstroke  Harry Hebner (USA)  Otto Fahr (GER)  Paul Kellner (GER)
200 m breaststroke  Walter Bathe (GER)  Wilhelm Lützow (GER)  Paul Malisch (GER)
400 m breaststroke  Walter Bathe (GER)  Thor Henning (SWE)  Percy Courtman (GBR)
4×200 m freestyle relay  Australasia (ANZ)
Cecil Healy
Malcolm Champion
Leslie Boardman
Harold Hardwick
 United States (USA)
Ken Huszagh
Harry Hebner
Perry McGillivray
Duke Kahanamoku
 Great Britain (GBR)
William Foster
Thomas Battersby
John Hatfield
Henry Taylor
Event Gold Silver Bronze
100 m freestyle  Fanny Durack (ANZ)  Wilhelmina Wylie (ANZ)  Jennie Fletcher (GBR)
4×100 m freestyle relay  Great Britain (GBR)
Belle Moore
Jennie Fletcher
Annie Speirs
Irene Steer
 Germany (GER)
Wally Dressel
Louise Otto
Hermine Stindt
Grete Rosenberg
 Austria (AUT)
Margarete Adler
Klara Milch
Josephine Sticker
Berta Zahourek
 

Medal table

 
Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Germany (GER) 2 3 2 7
2  Australasia (ANZ) 2 2 2 6
3  United States (USA) 2 1 1 4
4  Canada (CAN) 2 0 0 2
5  Great Britain (GBR) 1 2 3 6
6  Sweden (SWE) 0 1 0 1
7  Austria (AUT) 0 0 1 1
Totals (7 nations) 9 9 9 27
 

Men's 100 metres Freestyle

 Host City: Stockholm, Sweden
Venue(s): Swimming Stadium, Djurgarden Bay, Stockholm
Date Started: July 6, 1912
Date Finished: July 10, 1912

Competitors 34from 12 nations

Summary

The defending Olympic champion was America’s [Charlie Daniels], who had won the gold medal in this event in both 1906 and 1908. At the beginning of 1912, Daniels also held the world record, having recorded 1:02.8 over 110 yards in New York on 15 April 1910. But Daniels had recently retired and did not compete at Stockholm. The favorite’s role in Stockholm probably fell to the German, [Kurt Bretting], who on 6 April 1912, had broken Daniels’ world record with a mark of 1:02.4.

The Americans were led by the little known Hawaiian, [Duke Kahanamoku]. Kahanamoku had not competed in the American championships, because he was so far from the mainland in an era when travel was not easy, but supposedly he had set record times in his native Hawaii.

Controversy occurred in the semi-finals, which were scheduled for the evening of 7 July, only a few hours after the quarter-finals. For some reason, the American contingent, Kahanamoku, [Ken Huszagh], and [Perry McGillivray], who had all qualified for the semi-finals, did not appear, thinking that the afternoon race had qualified them for the final, to be held on 9 July. But this was not the case.

The swimming officials made allowances, however, and decided to hold an extra heat among the Americans and Italy’s [Mario Massa], who had missed the quarter-finals due to a “misunderstanding.” They ruled that the winner of the extra semi-final heat could advance to the final, if he posted a time faster than the 3rd-place swimmer in heat one. [Cecil Healy] argued on behalf of the Americans and assisted in their successful appeal to be able to swim an extra qualification race. Kahanamoku proved his ability in this heat, and made certain that he would qualify by giving his best effort, which resulted in his equalling Bretting’s world record of 1:02.4. Huszagh was also advanced to the final, as his mark of 1:06.2 was equal to the 3rd-place time from heat one, which had been posted by Australia’s [Bill Longworth].

In the final, Kahanamoku took the lead early, and Bretting never challenged. Noting at the halfway mark that he had a comfortable lead, Kahanamoku eased up and still defeated Healy by almost two metres, although with a slower time than he had posted in the semi-finals.

The men's 100 metre freestyle was a swimming event held as part of the swimming at the 1912 Summer Olympics programme. It was the third appearance of the event, which had not been featured at the 1900 Games. The competition was held from Saturday July 6, 1912, to Wednesday July 10, 1912.

Thirty-four swimmers from twelve nations competed.

Records

These were the standing world and Olympic records (in minutes) prior to the 1912 Summer Olympics.

World Record 1:02.4 Germany Kurt Bretting Brussels (BEL) April 6, 1912
Olympic Record 1:05.6 United States Charles Daniels London (GBR) July 20, 1908
1:02.8(*) Hungary Zoltán Halmay St. Louis (USA) September 5, 1904

(*) 100 yards (= 91.44 m)

In the fourth heat Perry McGillivray set a new Olympic record with 1:04.8 minutes. In the fifth heat Duke Kahanamoku bettered the Olympic record of 1:02.6 minutes. Finally Duke Kahanamoku improved the Olympic record with a time of 1:02.4 minutes in the third semi-final heat.

Final

Longworth was unable to continue competing due to illness and did not start in the final.

Kahanamoku was clearly in control by the halfway point, with a tight race between Huszagh, Ramme, and Bretting for the next three spots with Healy close behind them. It was Healy who took the silver medal, though, as he swam by the other three near the finish. Ramme fell back to fifth while Huszagh and Bretting finished separated by "[o]nly a decimetre".

Place Swimmer Time
1  Duke Kahanamoku (USA) 1:03.4
2  Cecil Healy (ANZ) 1:04.6
3  Ken Huszagh (USA) 1:05.6
4  Kurt Bretting (GER) 1:05.8
5  Walter Ramme (GER) 1:06.4
6  William Longworth (ANZ) DNS

Semifinals

Further confusion struck the semifinals. Under the belief that the second round of the competition had been the semifinals, the American swimmers did not appear for the third round. This led to both semifinals being essentially walkovers, as the first had three swimmers and the second only one. Since the top two swimmers of each and the fastest third-place swimmer would advance, all four competitors had secured a place in the final before entering the water. Longworth swam in the first heat, despite suffering from what the official report referred to as "suppuration in the head".

The jury for the swimming events met and determined that a third heat should be held under special rules. If the winner of the extra heat were to beat the time set by the third-place swimmer of the first heat (1:06.2, a stiff pace but one which all three Americans had beat during the quarterfinals), he and the second-place finisher would advance. If the mark were not bettered, none of the swimmers from the third heat would advance. Massa, who had missed the quarterfinals due to a misunderstanding, was also allowed to start in the extra semifinal.

In the third heat, Kahanamoku not only beat Longworth's time, thus qualifying himself and Huszagh for the final, but bettered his own Olympic record which he had set in the first round. Huszagh out-touched McGillivray by a "hand's breadth" to take second place and the final qualification spot, though both finished well behind Kahanamoku and their own previous times. Massa did not finish the race.

Semifinal 1

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Cecil Healy (ANZ) 1:05.6 QF
2  Walter Ramme (GER) 1:05.8 QF
3  William Longworth (ANZ) 1:06.2 qf

Semifinal 2

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Kurt Bretting (GER) 1:04.6 QF

Semifinal 3

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Duke Kahanamoku (USA) 1:02.4 QF =WR
2  Ken Huszagh (USA) 1:06.2 QF
3  Perry McGillivray (USA) 1:06.2  
 Mario Massa (ITA) DNF  

Quarterfinals

Again, the top two in each heat advanced along with the fastest loser overall. Four of the qualified swimmers did not take part in their quarterfinal heats, and a fifth (Massa) did not appear due to a misunderstanding. Massa was later allowed to take part in the semifinals.

Quarterfinal 1

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Kurt Bretting (GER) 1:04.2 QS
2  William Longworth (ANZ) 1:05.2 QS
3  Harold Hardwick (ANZ) 1:06.0  
4  Robert Andersson (SWE) 1:10.0  
 László Beleznai (HUN) DNS  
 Georges Rigal (FRA) DNS  

Quarterfinal 2

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Duke Kahanamoku (USA) 1:03.8 QS
2  Walter Ramme (GER) 1:07.8 QS
3  Nicholas Nerich (USA) 1:08.8  
 Max Ritter (GER) 1:08.8  
 Erik Bergqvist (SWE) DNS  
 Harald Julin (SWE) DNS  

Quarterfinal 3

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Ken Huszagh (USA) 1:04.2 QS
2  Perry McGillivray (USA) 1:04.4 QS
3  Cecil Healy (ANZ) 1:04.8 qs
4  Leslie Boardman (ANZ) 1:05.4  
5  Paul Radmilovic (GBR) 1:19.0  
 Mario Massa (ITA) DNS qs

Heats

The fastest two in each heat advanced. A tie for second in the seventh heat resulted in both swimmers advancing. In addition, the fastest third-place swimmer from across the heats also qualified for the quarterfinals.

Heat 1

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  László Beleznai (HUN) 1:08.0 QQ
2  Robert Andersson (SWE) 1:09.4 QQ
3  Andreas Asimakopoulos (GRE) 1:15.4  
4  Herbert von Kuhlberg (RUS)    

Heat 2

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Kurt Bretting (GER) 1:07.0 QQ
2  Paul Radmilovic (GBR) 1:10.4 QQ
3  Theodore Tartakover (ANZ) 1:12.2  
4  Jules Wuyts (BEL) 1:13.6  

Heat 3

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Leslie Boardman (ANZ) 1:06.0 QQ
2  Nicholas Nerich (USA) 1:07.6 QQ
3  John Derbyshire (GBR) 1:09.2  
4-6  Davide Baiardo (ITA)    
 Walther Binner (GER)    
 Alajos Kenyery (HUN)    

Heat 4

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Perry McGillivray (USA) 1:04.8 QQ OR
2  Cecil Healy (ANZ) 1:05.2 QQ
3  Ken Huszagh (USA) 1:06.2 qq
4  Erik Andersson (SWE) 1:13.0  
5  Georg Kunisch (GER)    

Heat 5

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Duke Kahanamoku (USA) 1:02.6 QQ OR
2  William Longworth (ANZ) 1:05.2 QQ
3  Harry Hebner (USA) 1:10.4  
4  Gérard Meister (FRA) 1:16.6  

Heat 6

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Harold Hardwick (ANZ) 1:05.8 QQ
2  Max Ritter (GER) 1:08.0 QQ
3  Herman Meyboom (BEL) 1:15.4  
4  James Reilly (USA)    

Heat 7

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Walter Ramme (GER) 1:10.2 QQ
2  Harald Julin (SWE) 1:11.8 QQ
 Mario Massa (ITA) 1:11.8 QQ
4  John Johnsen (NOR) 1:19.2  

Heat 8

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Erik Bergqvist (SWE) 1:13.4 QQ
2  Georges Rigal (FRA) 1:17.8 QQ
3  László Szentgróthy (HUN)    

Men's 400 metres Freestyle

Host City: Stockholm, Sweden
Venue(s): Swimming Stadium, Djurgarden Bay, Stockholm
Date Started: July 11, 1912
Date Finished: July 14, 1912

Competitors 26from 13 nations

Summary

The world record over 440 yards was held by Australia’s [Frank Beaurepaire], who had won the silver medal in this event at London in 1908. Beaurepaire competed at the 1920 and 1924 Olympic Games as well, but he did not compete in Stockholm as he was declared a professional in 1911 for having lectured on swimming and lifesaving. Australia’s best hope in this event was [Harold Hardwick], who had won the 1911 Amateur Swimming Association (ASA - Great Britain) title over 440 yards. Hardwick later won the Australian professional heavyweight boxing champion in 1915.

But the victory went to Canada’s [George Hodgson], who had won the 1,500 metres only four days earlier. Hodgson had come to prominence in 1910 when he won every race he entered at the Canadian Championships. In 1911 he won the mile race at the Festival of the Empire Games in London (GBR), entering McGill University (Montreal) upon his return. In 1912, he again swept his events at the Canadian Championships, while representing the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association (MAAA). With the outbreak of World War I, Hodgson travelled to England where he joined the Royal Air Force (RAF). During his military career, he won the AFC and the London Board of Trade Silver Medal for rescues made at sea. Upon his return to Canada, he resumed his swimming career, and competed at the 1920 Olympics, but in the 400 and 1,500 metre freestyle races at Antwerp, he failed to make the final. Second-place finisher [John Hatfield] would later win the ASA title in 1912 and 1913.

The men's 400 metre freestyle was a swimming event held as part of the swimming at the 1912 Summer Olympics programme.It was the third appearance of the event, which had been introduced in 1904. The competition was held from Thursday July 11, 1912 to Sunday July 14, 1912.

Twenty-six swimmers from 13 nations competed.

Records

These were the standing world and Olympic records (in minutes) prior to the 1912 Summer Olympics.

World Record 5:28.4 Hungary Béla Las-Torres Budapest (HUN) June 5, 1912
Olympic Record 5:36.8 United Kingdom Henry Taylor London (GBR) July 16, 1908

In the first heat Harold Hardwick set a new Olympic record with 5:36.0 minutes. In the fifth heat Cecil Healy improved the Olympic record with 5:34.0 minutes. In the first semi-final George Hodgson set a world record with 5:25.4 minutes and in the final he improved his record again with 5:24.4 minutes.

Final

Place Swimmer Time
1  George Hodgson (CAN) 5:24.4 WR
2  John Hatfield (GBR) 5:25.8
3  Harold Hardwick (ANZ) 5:31.2
4  Cecil Healy (ANZ) 5:37.8
5  Béla Las-Torres (HUN) 5:42.0

Semifinals

The top two from each heat and the faster of the two third place swimmers advanced.

Semifinal 1

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  George Hodgson (CAN) 5:25.4 QF WR
2  John Hatfield (GBR) 5:25.6 QF
3  William Foster (GBR) 5:49.0  
4  Nicholas Nerich (USA) 5:51.0  
5  Thomas Battersby (GBR) 5:51.2  
6  John Johnsen (NOR)    
 Max Ritter (GER) DNS  

Semifinal 2

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Harold Hardwick (ANZ) 5:31.0 QF
2  Béla Las-Torres (HUN) 5:34.8 QF
3  Cecil Healy (ANZ) 5:37.8 qf
4  Malcolm Champion (ANZ) 5:38.0  
5  Henry Taylor (GBR) 5:48.2  
 Alajos Kenyery (HUN) DNS

Quarterfinals

The top two in each heat advanced along with the fastest loser overall.

Heat 1

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Harold Hardwick (ANZ) 5:36.0 QS OR
2  Malcolm Champion (ANZ) 5:37.0 QS
3  James Reilly (USA) 6:10.2  
4  Nils-Erik Haglund (SWE) 6:23.4  
5  Davide Baiardo (ITA)    
 Mario Massa (ITA) DNF  

Heat 2

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Thomas Battersby (GBR) 6:03.6 QS
2  John Johnsen (NOR) 6:14.4 QS
3  Eskil Wedholm (SWE) 6:29.8  
 Pavel Avksentyev (RUS) DNF  

Heat 3

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Max Ritter (GER) 5:44.6 QS
2  Alajos Kenyery (HUN) 5:46.0 QS
3  Nicholas Nerich (USA) 5:50.4 qs
 Theodore Tartakover (ANZ) DNF  
 David Theander (SWE) DNF  

Heat 4

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Béla Las-Torres (HUN) 5:36.2 QS
2  Henry Taylor (GBR) 5:48.4 QS
 Nikolay Voronkov (RUS) DNF  

Heat 5

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Cecil Healy (ANZ) 5:34.0 QS OR
2  John Hatfield (GBR) 5:35.6 QS
3  Franz Schuh (AUT) 6:09.4  

Heat 6

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  George Hodgson (CAN) 5:50.6 QS
2  William Foster (GBR) 5:52.4 QS
3  Oscar Schiele (GER) 5:57.0  
4  George Godfrey (RSA) 6:30.6  
5  Harry Hedegaard (DEN) 7:07.8  

Men's 1,500 metres Freestyle

Host City: Stockholm, Sweden
Venue(s): Swimming Stadium, Djurgarden Bay, Stockholm
Date Started: July 6, 1912
Date Finished: July 10, 1912

Competitors 19from 11 nations

 

Summary

The defending champion was Britain’s [Henry Taylor], who also held the world record of 22:48.4, which he had set at London in winning the 1908 Olympic championship. Taylor had won the ASA mile championship in 1911, but in 1912 he would be defeated by [John Hatfield], a month after the Olympics, and he would also win that title in 1913-14. Hatfield had to know he would have a difficult time when Canada’s [George Hodgson] broke Taylor’s world record in the first round, posting a time of 22:23.0.

In the final, Hatfield was no match for Hodgson. Hodgson took off at a brisk pace, leading Australia’s [Harold Hardwick] by 10 metres at the first turn (100 metres). By 500 metres, he held a 25 metre lead over Hatfield. Hodgson passed 1,000 metres in 14:37.0, a world record for that distance. After winning the race in 22:00.0, Hodgson continued on in an attempt to set a new world record for the mile (1,609 metres), which he did with a time of 23:34.5. Hodgson’s world record for 1,500 metres lasted for 11 years, until it was broken by [Arne Borg] (SWE), with a time of 21:35.3 at Göteborg on 8 July 1923. In addition to his gold medal, Hodgson also earned possession of the Challenge Trophy for the 1,500 metre freestyle event, which had been donated in 1908 by the Italian Count and IOC Member, Eugenio Brunetta d’Usseaux.

The men's 1500 metre freestyle was a swimming event held as part of the swimming at the 1912 Summer Olympics programme. It was the second appearance of the event, which had been introduced in 1908. At the 1904 and 1906 Olympics a one-mile freestyle contest was held. The competition was held from Saturday July 6, 1912 to Wednesday July 10, 1912.

Nineteen swimmers from eleven nations competed.

Records

These were the standing world and Olympic records (in minutes) prior to the 1912 Summer Olympics.

World Record 22:48.4 United Kingdom Henry Taylor London (GBR) July 25, 1908
Olympic Record 22:48.4 United Kingdom Henry Taylor London (GBR) July 25, 1908

George Hodgson set a new world record with a 22:23.0 in the qualifying round and improved his own record in the final to 22:00.0.

Final

Place Swimmer Time
1  George Hodgson (CAN) 22:00.0 WR
2  Jack Hatfield (GBR) 22:39.0
3  Harold Hardwick (ANZ) 23:15.4
-  Malcolm Champion (ANZ) DNF
-  Béla Las-Torres (HUN) DNF
George Hodgson on the way to winning the gold medal.

Semifinals

The top two from each heat and the faster of the two third place swimmers advanced.

Semifinal 1

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  George Hodgson (CAN) 22:26.0 QF
2  Jack Hatfield (GBR) 22:33.4 QF
3  Harold Hardwick (ANZ) 23:14.0 qf
4  Vilhelm Andersson (SWE) 23:14.4  
 Henry Taylor (GBR) DNF  
 Franz Schuh (AUT) DNS  

Semifinal 2

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Béla Las-Torres (HUN) 23:09.8 QF
2  Malcolm Champion (ANZ) 23:24.2 QF
3  William Foster (GBR) 23:32.2  
4  Thomas Battersby (GBR)    
 William Longworth (ANZ) DNS  

Quarterfinals

The top two in each heat advanced along with the fastest loser overall.

Quarterfinal 1

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Vilhelm Andersson (SWE) 23:12.2 QS
2  Malcolm Champion (ANZ) 23:34.0 QS
3  Henry Taylor (GBR) 24:06.4 qs
 Herbert Wetter (NOR) DNF  

Quarterfinal 2

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Béla Las-Torres (HUN) 22:58.0 QS
2  Jack Hatfield (GBR) 23:16.6 QS
 Auguste Caby (FRA) DNF  

Quarterfinal 3

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  George Hodgson (CAN) 22:23.0 QS WR
2  William Longworth (ANZ) 23:03.6 QS
3  Harry Hedegaard (DEN) 28:32.4  

Quarterfinal 4

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Thomas Battersby (GBR) 23:58.0 QS
2  Franz Schuh (AUT) 25:19.8 QS
3  Eskil Wedholm (SWE) 27:38.0  
 Mario Massa (ITA) DNF  

Quarterfinal 5

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Harold Hardwick (ANZ) 23:23.2 QS
2  William Foster (GBR) 23:52.2 QS
3  John Johnsen (NOR) 25:45.6  
4  Gustav Collin (SWE) 27:05.2  
 Pavel Avksentyev (RUS) DNF  

Men's 4 x— 200 metres Freestyle Relay

Host City: Stockholm, Sweden
Venue(s): Swimming Stadium, Djurgarden Bay, Stockholm
Date Started: July 12, 1912
Date Finished: July 15, 1912

Competitors20from 5 nations

The world record of 10:55.6 in this event had been set in 1908 at the London Olympics by the winning British relay team. But that record took a beating in this event as, in the first round, the United States bettered the mark with a time of 10:26.4. That record lasted only a few minutes as it was bettered in the second heat by the Australasian team, which won the heat in 10:14.0.

The final was expected to be a close battle between the United States and Australasia, but Australasia dominated the final. The two teams were almost tied at the end of the first leg, but New Zealand’s [Malcolm Champion] pulled away on the second leg and the Australasians were never again challenged. They won by almost nine seconds in a new world record of 10:11.6.

The men's 4×200 metre freestyle relay was a swimming event held as part of the swimming at the 1912 Summer Olympics programme. It was the second appearance of the event, which had been introduced in 1908. The competition was held on Friday July 12, 1912 and Monday July 15, 1912.

Twenty swimmers from five nations competed.

Records

These were the standing world and Olympic records (in minutes) prior to the 1912 Summer Olympics.

World Record 10:53.4 United Kingdom William Foster
United Kingdom Paul Radmilovic
United Kingdom John Derbyshire
United Kingdom Henry Taylor
London (GBR) July 24, 1908
Olympic Record 10:53.4 United Kingdom William Foster
United Kingdom Paul Radmilovic
United Kingdom John Derbyshire
United Kingdom Henry Taylor
London (GBR) July 24, 1908

All five teams swam in times under the standing world record in the semifinals. The Americans, by virtue of winning the first semifinal, held the new record only until the Australasian team won the second in a better time. The Australasians bettered their own record in the final, making the 4x200 free relay an event in which the Olympic record (and world record) was broken each heat.

Final

Place Swimmers Time
1  Cecil Healy, Malcolm Champion, Leslie Boardman, Harold Hardwick (ANZ) 10:11.2 WR
2  Ken Huszagh, Perry McGillivray, Harry Hebner, Duke Kahanamoku (USA) 10:20.2
3  William Foster, Thomas Battersby, Jack Hatfield, Henry Taylor (GBR) 10:28.6
4  Oscar Schiele, Georg Kunisch, Kurt Bretting, Max Ritter (GER) 10:37.0
5   (HUN) DNS

Semifinals

The top two from each heat and the fastest of third place teams advanced. Since there were only five teams that started, this resulted in all five advancing to the finals with no team eliminated by the semifinals.

Semifinal 1

Place Swimmers Time Qual.
1  Ken Huszagh, Duke Kahanamoku, Perry McGillivray, Harry Hebner (USA) 10:26.4 QF WR
2  László Beleznai, Imre Zachár, Alajos Kenyery, Béla Las-Torres (HUN) 10:34.6 QF
3  William Foster, Thomas Battersby, Jack Hatfield, Henry Taylor (GBR) 10:39.4 qf

Semifinal 2

Place Swimmers Time Qual.
1  Harold Hardwick, Malcolm Champion, Leslie Boardman, Cecil Healy (ANZ) 10:14.0 QF WR
2  Oscar Schiele, Georg Kunisch, Kurt Bretting, Max Ritter (GER) 10:42.2 QF

Men's 100 metres Backstroke

Host City: Stockholm, Sweden
Venue(s): Swimming Stadium, Djurgarden Bay, Stockholm
Date Started: July 9, 1912
Date Finished: July 13, 1912

Competitors 18from 7 nations

Summary

In an era when the United States did not contest an outdoor backstroke championship, [Harry Hebner] still dominated American backstroking. Over the indoor distance of 150 yards, he was national champion from 1910-1916. He rarely raced over 100 metres or the Imperial equivalent of 110 yards, but he held the American records for both 100 and 150 yards. The world record at the beginning of 1912 was held by Hungary’s [András Baronyi], who had posted 1:18.8 at Budapest on 17 July 1911. But the world record was broken twice before the Stockholm Olympics, first by Germany’s [Oscar Schiele] with 1:18.4 at Brussels on 6 April, and then the mark was destroyed by Germany’s [Otto Fahr], with 1:15.6 at Magdeburg on 29 April. Schiele was in Stockholm and competed in this event, but he was disqualified in heat one of round one.

Fahr’s world record was not threatened in any round. But the final came down to him and Hebner. After a false start, Hebner took an early lead and held off Fahr to win by slightly over one second. The Official Report noted, “Hebner, who kept his head well out of the water and was able to observe his opponents during the whole of the race, won without any difficulty.”

The men's 100 metre backstroke was a swimming event held as part of the swimming at the 1912 Summer Olympics programme. It was the second appearance of the event, which had been introduced in 1908. In 1904 a 100-yard event was held. The competition was held from Tuesday July 9, 1912 to Saturday July 13, 1912.

Eighteen swimmers from seven nations competed.

Records

These were the standing world and Olympic records (in minutes) prior to the 1912 Summer Olympics.

World Record 1:15.6 Germany Otto Fahr Magdeburg (GER) April 29, 1912
Olympic Record 1:24.6 Germany Arno Bieberstein London (GBR) July 17, 1908

The Olympic record fell during the very first heat. Harry Hebner's 1:21.0 in the first heat stood until Hebner raced again. In the first semifinal, he bettered his own new record with a 1:20.8. He was unable to match that pace in the final, but still took the win with a finish that was over 1 second faster than the second-place swimmer.

Final

Place Swimmer Time
1  Harry Hebner (USA) 1:21.2
2  Otto Fahr (GER) 1:22.4
3  Paul Kellner (GER) 1:24.0
4  András Baronyi (HUN) 1:25.2
5  Otto Groß (GER) 1:25.8

Semifinals

The top two from each heat and the faster of the two third place swimmers advanced.

Semifinal 1

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Harry Hebner (USA) 1:20.8 QF OR
2  Otto Fahr (GER) 1:21.8 QF
3  András Baronyi (HUN) 1:26.2 qf
4  László Szentgróthy (HUN) 1:26.4  
5  Erich Schultze (GER)    
6  George Webster (GBR)    

Semifinal 1

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Otto Groß (GER) 1:26.0 QF
2  Paul Kellner (GER) 1:26.2 QF
3  Herbert Haresnape (GBR) 1:26.8  
4  Frank Sandon (GBR) 1:32.2  
 Gunnar Sundman (SWE) 1:35.0

Quarterfinals

The top two in each heat advanced along with the fastest loser overall.

Quarterfinal 1

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Harry Hebner (USA) 1:21.0 QS OR
2  Otto Groß (GER) 1:24.0 QS
3  Åke Bergman (SWE) 1:33.8  
 Oscar Schiele (GER) DQ  

Quarterfinal 2

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Otto Fahr (GER) 1:22.0 QS
2  George Webster (GBR) 1:29.4 QS
3  Hugo Lundevall (SWE) 1:46.8  
 János Wenk (HUN) DQ  

Quarterfinal 3

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  András Baronyi (HUN) 1:22.0 QS
2  Paul Kellner (GER) 1:26.0 QS
3  Harry Svendsen (NOR) 1:47.2  
 Oscar Grégoire (BEL) DQ  

Quarterfinal 4

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Herbert Haresnape (GBR) 1:27.0 QS
2  Erich Schultze (GER) 1:27.2 QS
3  Gunnar Sundman (SWE) 1:31.2 qs
4  John Johnsen (NOR) 1:34.2  

Quarterfinal 5

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  László Szentgróthy (HUN) 1:26.6 QS
2  Frank Sandon (GBR) 1:31.8 QS

Men's 200 metres Breaststroke

Host City: Stockholm, Sweden
Venue(s): Swimming Stadium, Djurgarden Bay, Stockholm
Date Started: July 7, 1912
Date Finished: July 10, 1912

Competitors 24from 11 nations

Summary

International breaststroke competition in this era was dominated by Continental Europeans, notably the Germans. The world record was held by Belgium’s [Félicien Courbet], with a mark of 3:00.8 set at Schaerback on 2 October 1910. Although Courbet was in Stockholm he did not advance in his semi-final heat. The most recent ASA championships had been won as follows: 1907-09 - [Percy Courtman] (GBR), 1910 - [Harald Julin] (SWE), 1911 - [Ödön Toldi] (HUN), and 1912-13 - Courtman. Thus the event was wide-open.

But none of the above won a medal, although all but Toldi competed. The event was swept by the Germans, led by [Walter Bathe], who challenged, but did not break, Courbet’s world record with a mark of 3:01.8.

The men's 200 metre breaststroke was a swimming event held as part of the swimming at the 1912 Summer Olympics programme. It was the second appearance of the event, which had been introduced in 1908. Germany swept the medals in the event. The competition was held from Sunday July 7, 1912 to Friday July 12, 1912.

Twenty-four swimmers from eleven nations competed.

Records

These were the standing world and Olympic records (in minutes) prior to the 1912 Summer Olympics.

World Record 3:00.8 Belgium Félicien Courbet Schaerbeek (BEL) October 2, 1910
Olympic Record 3:09.2 United Kingdom Frederick Holman London (GBR) July 18, 1908

The Germans also took the Olympic record, with Lützow breaking it in the first heat and Bathe then proceeding to set it even higher each of the three times he raced. His gold medal winning time in the final, 3:01.8, stood as the Olympic record at the end.

Final

Place Swimmer Time
1  Walter Bathe (GER) 3:01.8 OR
2  Wilhelm Lützow (GER) 3:05.0
3  Paul Malisch (GER) 3:08.0
4  Percy Courtman (GBR) 3:08.8
 Thor Henning (SWE) DNF

Semifinals

The top two from each heat and the faster of the two third place swimmers advanced.

Semifinal 1

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Paul Malisch (GER) 3:09.6 QF
2  Thor Henning (SWE) 3:10.4 QF
3  Harald Julin (SWE) 3:10.6  
4  Lennart Lindroos (FIN) 3:11.6  
5  Carlyle Atkinson (GBR) 3:15.2  
6  Arvo Aaltonen (FIN) 3:17.0  

Semifinal 2

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Walter Bathe (GER) 3:02.2 QF OR
2  Wilhelm Lützow (GER) 3:04.4 QF
3  Percy Courtman (GBR) 3:09.4 qf
4  Oszkár Demján (HUN) 3:11.2  
5  Félicien Courbet (BEL) 3:11.6  
 Pontus Hanson (SWE) DNF  

Quarterfinals

The top two in each heat advanced along with the fastest loser overall.

Quarterfinal 1

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Wilhelm Lützow (GER) 3:07.4 QS OR
2  Thor Henning (SWE) 3:14.0 QS
3  Lennart Lindroos (FIN) 3:16.6 qs
4  Frank Schryver (ANZ) 3:24.0  

Quarterfinal 2

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Paul Malisch (GER) 3:08.8 QS
2  Arvo Aaltonen (FIN) 3:13.0 QS
3  Nils Andersson (SWE) 3:20.6  
4  Josef Wastl (AUT) 3:25.6  
5  Georgy Baimakov (RUS) 3:29.0  

Quarterfinal 3

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Carlyle Atkinson (GBR) 3:12.0 QS

Quarterfinal 4

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Walter Bathe (GER) 3:03.4 QS OR
2  Percy Courtman (GBR) 3:09.8 QS
3  Fredrik Löwenadler (SWE) 3:22.2  
 Mike McDermott (USA) DSQ  

Quarterfinal 5

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Félicien Courbet (BEL) 3:12.6 QS
2  Pontus Hanson (SWE) 3:14.2 QS
 George Innocent (GBR) DSQ  
 Audun Rusten (NOR) DSQ  

Quarterfinal 6

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Oszkár Demján (HUN) 3:07.8 QS
2  Harald Julin (SWE) 3:12.8 QS
3  Herman Cederberg (FIN) 3:18.6  
4  Vilhelm Lindgrén (FIN) 3:21.2  
5  Sven Hanson (SWE) 3:24.4  
6  Oscar Hamrén (SWE)    

Men's 400 metres Breaststroke

Host City: Stockholm, Sweden
Venue(s): Swimming Stadium, Djurgarden Bay, Stockholm
Date Started: July 8, 1912
Date Finished: July 12, 1912

Competitors 17from 10 nations

Summary

This event appeared on the Olympic Program for one of only three times - 1904 (at 440 yards), 1912, and 1920. [Walter Bathe] (GER) won his second breaststroke gold medal, adding this to the title he had won at 200 metres two days earlier. Bathe took an early lead, being ahead by four metres at the first turn (100 metres), and led by 10 metres at the 250 metre mark. He won easily.

The men's 400 metre breaststroke was a swimming event held as part of the swimming at the 1912 Summer Olympics programme. It was the second appearance of the event, which had been introduced (as the 440 yard breaststroke) in 1904. The competition was held from Monday July 8, 1912 to Friday July 12, 1912.

Seventeen swimmers from ten nations competed.

The final of the event was a rematch between the five swimmers who had competed in the final of the 200 metre race. Bathe won once again (and indeed, set a new Olympic record each time he raced in both breaststroke events), with Henning providing a stiff challenge in the semifinals. Neither Lützow nor Malisch were able to medal in the longer race, as Henning took silver and Courtman finished third.

Records

These were the standing world and Olympic records (in minutes) prior to the 1912 Summer Olympics.

World Record   ?    
Olympic Record 7:23.6(*) Germany Georg Zacharias St. Louis (USA) September 7, 1904

(*) 440 yards (= 402.34 m)

In the first heat Thor Henning set a new Olympic record with 6:52.4 minutes. Only to be improved in the second heat by Paul Malisch who swam 6:47.0 minutes. In the fourth heat Percy Courtman improved the Olympic record with 6:43.8 minutes. And again one heat later in the fifth run Walter Bathe swam 6:34.6. In the first semi-final Bathe and Henning bettered the record with 6:32.0 minutes. Bathe was able to improve the record in the final with 6:29.6 minutes.

Final

Friday July 12, 1912:

Final
Place Swimmer Time
1  Walter Bathe (GER) 6:29.6 OR
2  Thor Henning (SWE) 6:35.6
3  Percy Courtman (GBR) 6:36.4
4  Paul Malisch (GER) 6:37.0
 Wilhelm Lützow (GER) DNF

Semifinals

Thursday July 11, 1912: The top two from each heat and the faster of the two third place swimmers advanced.

Semifinal 1

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Walter Bathe (GER) 6:32.0 QF OR
2  Thor Henning (SWE) 6:32.0 QF =OR
3  Percy Courtman (GBR) 6:36.6 qf
4  Félicien Courbet (BEL) 6:59.8  
 Zeno von Singalewicz (AUT) DNF  
 Georgy Baimakov (RUS) DNS  

Semifinal 2

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Wilhelm Lützow (GER) 6:44.6 QF
2  Paul Malisch (GER) 6:47.6 QF
3  Arvo Aaltonen (FIN) 6:56.8  
4  Lennart Lindroos (FIN) 7:02.4  
 George Innocent (GBR) DNF

Quarterfinals

Monday July 8, 1912: The top two in each heat advanced along with the fastest loser overall.

Heat 1

Oszkár Demján was disqualified, because he touched the wall with only one hand at the second turn.

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Thor Henning (SWE) 6:52.4 QS OR
2  George Innocent (GBR) 7:07.8 QS
 Josef Wastl (AUT) DNF  
 Oszkár Demján (HUN) (6:35.8) DSQ

Heat 2

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Paul Malisch (GER) 6:47.0 QS OR
2  Lennart Lindroos (FIN) 7:03.0 QS
3  Nils Andersson (SWE) 7:17.0  
 Mike McDermott (USA) (7:07.0) DSQ

Heat 3

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Wilhelm Lützow (GER) 6:49.8 QS
2  Félicien Courbet (BEL) 6:52.6 QS
3  Zeno von Singalewicz (AUT) 7:04.0 qs
4  Frank Schryver (ANZ) 7:07.8  

Heat 4

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Percy Courtman (GBR) 6:43.8 QS OR
2  Arvo Aaltonen (FIN) 6:48.8 QS
3  Vilhelm Lindgrén (FIN) 7:12.6  

Heat 5

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Walter Bathe (GER) 6:34.6 QS OR
2  Georgy Baimakov (RUS) 7:28.6 QS

Women's 100 metres Freestyle

Host City: Stockholm, Sweden
Venue(s): Swimming Stadium, Djurgarden Bay, Stockholm
Date Started: July 8, 1912
Date Finished: July 12, 1912

Competitors 27from 8 nations

Summary

Women had never competed internationally in swimming prior to the Stockholm Olympics, so it was difficult to choose favorites. The British ASA title had been won in 1909, 1911, and 1912 by Britain’s [Jennie Fletcher]. The world record at the beginning of 1912 was held over 110 yards by [Daisy Curwen] (GBR) with 1:24.6, set in Liverpool on 29 September 1911. In preparation for the Olympics, Curwen herself broke that mark on 10 June 1912, posting 1:20.6 at Birkenhead.

Australia was to be represented by [Fanny Durack] and [Mina Wylie], but not without some effort. Originally the Australian sports authorities did not wish to “waste” money on sending women to the Olympics. Finally, the New South Wales Ladies’ Amateur Swimming Association voted to allow the two to go to the Olympics, providing they paid their own way. A fund was raised which paid Durack’s expenses and Wylie’s family and friends provided her support. Durack’s sister, Mary, served as their chaperone on the long boat trip.

Mina Wylie had been the better of the two swimmers up to a year before the 1912 Olympics, and she had never lost to Durack to that time. But Durack changed to the new crawl stroke, from the Trudgeon, and after that, Wylie never defeated Durack. Prior to the 1912 Olympics, Durack posted world records over 50 yards (27.0), 100 yards (66.0), and 220 yards (2:56.0). In her first round heat at Stockholm, she broke Curwen’s world record for 100 metres with a time of 1:19.8.

The final came down to Durack, Wylie, and Fletcher. Daisy Curwen competed in Stockholm and qualified for the final, but had to withdraw when she was rushed to hospital for an emergency appendectomy. It is unlikely she would have challenged Durack in the final, who won easily in 1:22.2. A few days later, in an exhibition in the Stockholm Swimming Stadium, Durack broke the world record for 300 metres with a time of 4:43.6. She eventually set 11 world records between 1906 and 1921. Although she planned to compete at the 1920 Olympics in Antwerp, that was derailed when, shortly before the Games, she suffered the same fate as Daisy Curwen, and missed the Olympics recovering from an appendectomy.

The women's 100 metre freestyle was a swimming event held as part of the swimming at the 1912 Summer Olympics programme. It was the first appearance of a women's event in Olympic swimming, followed closely by the 4×100 metre free relay. The competition was held from Monday to Friday, 8 to 12 July 1912.

Twenty-seven swimmers from eight nations competed.

Durack also won the gold medal, with compatriot Wylie close behind for silver.

Records

These were the standing world and Olympic records (in minutes) prior to the 1912 Summer Olympics.

World Record 1:20.6 United Kingdom Daisy Curwen Birkenhead (GBR) 10 June 1912
Olympic Record   none    

Belle Moore, swimming in the first heat, set the first Olympic record with 1 minute 29.8 seconds. In the second heat Daisy Curwen bettered the record with 1 minute 23.6 seconds, and in the fourth heat Fanny Durack set a new world record with 1 minute 19.8 seconds.

Final

Place Swimmer Time
1  Fanny Durack (ANZ) 1:22.2
2  Mina Wylie (ANZ) 1:25.4
3  Jennie Fletcher (GBR) 1:27.0
4  Grete Rosenberg (GER) 1:27.2
5  Annie Speirs (GBR) 1:27.4
 Daisy Curwen (GBR) DNS
Fanny Durack, Mina Wylie and Jennie Fletcher 1912b.jpg
Fanny Durack, Mina Wylie and Jennie Fletcher at the 1912 Olympics

Semifinals

The top two from each heat and the faster of the two third place swimmers advanced.

Semifinal 1

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Fanny Durack (ANZ) 1:20.2 QF
2  Daisy Curwen (GBR) 1:26.8 QF
3  Annie Speirs (GBR) 1:27.0 qf
4  Belle Moore (GBR) 1:27.4  
5  Mary Langford (GBR) 1:29.2  
6  Louise Otto (GER) 1:32.0  

Semifinal 2

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Mina Wylie (ANZ) 1:27.0 QF
2  Jennie Fletcher (GBR) 1:27.2 QF
3  Grete Rosenberg (GER) 1:29.2 *
4  Wally Dressel (GER) 1:33.4  
 Irene Steer (GBR) DQ  

Curwen had to undergo an operation for appendicitis and missed the final. Rosenberg advanced to the final to replace her.

Quarterfinals

The top two in each heat advanced along with the fastest loser overall.

Heat 1

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Belle Moore (GBR) 1:29.8 QS OR
2  Louise Otto (GER) 1:34.4 QS
3  Klara Milch (AUT) 1:37.2  
4  Greta Johansson (SWE) 1:41.4  
5  Tyyne Järvi (FIN) 1:42.4  
 Aagot Norman (NOR) DNF  

Heat 2

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Daisy Curwen (GBR) 1:23.6 QS OR
2  Jennie Fletcher (GBR) 1:26.2 QS
3  Berta Zahourek (AUT) 1:38.6  
4  Josefa Kellner (AUT) 1:41.2  
5  Karin Lundgren (SWE) 1:44.8  
6  Sonja Johnsson (SWE)    

Heat 3

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Mina Wylie (ANZ) 1:26.8 QS
2  Mary Langford (GBR) 1:28.0 QS
3  Hermine Stindt (GER) 1:29.2  
4  Josephine Sticker (AUT) 1:31.8  
5  Claire Guttenstein (BEL)    
6  Elsa Björklund (SWE)    

Heat 4

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Fanny Durack (ANZ) 1:19.8 QS WR
2  Irene Steer (GBR) 1:27.2 QS
3  Wally Dressel (GER) 1:28.6 qs
4  Margarete Adler (AUT) 1:34.4  
5  Greta Carlsson (SWE)    
6  Regina Kari (FIN)    

Heat 5

Place Swimmer Time Qual.
1  Grete Rosenberg (GER) 1:25.0 QS
2  Annie Speirs (GBR) 1:25.6 QS
3  Vera Thulin (SWE) 1:44.0  

Women's 4 × 100 metres Freestyle Relay

Host City: Stockholm, Sweden
Venue(s): Swimming Stadium, Djurgarden Bay, Stockholm
Date Started: July 15, 1912
Date Finished: July 15, 1912
Format: Final only.

Summary

Australia was represented at the 1912 Olympics by two swimmers, [Fanny Durack] and [Mina Wylie], who had finished 1st and 2nd in the 100 metres. They offered to compete in the relay, and swim two legs each, but this request was turned down. In their absence, Great Britain won the race easily.

The women's 4×100 metre freestyle relay was a swimming event held as part of the swimming at the 1912 Summer Olympics programme. It was the first appearance of the event, which along with the individual 100 metre freestyle marked the debut of women's Olympic swimming.

Only four teams entered the event: Australasia, whose swimmers finished first and second in the individual 100m freestyle, did not have any other women present to make a relay team, and a request for their swimmers to swim two legs each was rejected.

Great Britain, with two of the individual finalists, won the gold. Germany took silver and Austria won bronze over the host Swedes. The competition was held on Monday July 15, 1912.

Sixteen swimmers from four nations competed.

Final

 

The start of the race

Belle Moore, Jennie Fletcher, Annie Speirs, Irene Steer 1912.jpg
Belle Moore, Jennie Fletcher, Annie Speirs and Irene Steer at the 1912 Olympics
Place Swimmers Time
1  Belle Moore, Jennie Fletcher, Annie Speirs, Irene Steer (GBR) 5:52.8 WR
2  Wally Dressel, Louise Otto, Hermine Stindt, Grete Rosenberg (GER) 6:04.6
3  Margarete Adler, Klara Milch, Josephine Sticker, Berta Zahourek (AUT) 6:17.0
4  Greta Carlsson, Greta Johansson, Sonja Johnsson, Vera Thulin (SWE)  
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

 

Real time web analytics, Heat map tracking

Olympic Games

Full

Results

All Events