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1988  Seoul Summer Olympics

1988 Summer Olympics - About the Games

1988 Summer Olympics

 

Host City: Seoul, South Korea (September 17, 1988 to October 2, 1988)
Opening Ceremony: September 17, 1988 (opened by President Roh Tae-Woo)
Lighter of the Olympic Flame: Won-Tak Kim
Taker of the Olympic Oath: Heo Jae, Son Mi-Na (athlete)
Closing Ceremony: October 2, 1988
Events: 237 in 27 sports

Participants: 8,454 (6,249 men and 2,203 women) from 159 countries
Youngest Participant: ANG Nadia Cruz (13 years, 74 days)
Oldest Participant: BAH Durward Knowles (70 years, 323 days)
Most Medals (Athlete): USA Matt Biondi (7 medals)
Most Medals (Country): URS Soviet Union (132 medals)

The 1988 Summer Olympics (Korean Korean: 서울 하계 올림픽; RR: Seoul Hagye Ollimpik [sʌ.ul ɦaɡje olːimpʰik]), officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated from 17 September to 2 October 1988 in Seoul, South Korea.

In the Seoul Games, 159 nations were represented by a total of 8,391 athletes: 6,197 men and 2,194 women. 237 events were held and 27,221 volunteers helped to prepare the Olympics. 11,331 media (4,978 written press and 6,353 broadcasters) showed the Games all over the world.

These were the last Olympic Games for the Soviet Union and East Germany, as both ceased to exist before the next Olympic Games. The Soviets utterly dominated the medal table, winning 55 gold and 132 total medals. No country came close to this result after 1988.

The games were boycotted by North Korea and its ally, Cuba. Ethiopia, Albania and the Seychelles did not respond to the invitations sent by the IOC. Nicaragua did not participate due to athletic and financial considerations. The participation of Madagascar had been expected, and their team was expected at the opening ceremony of 160 nations. However, the country withdrew because of financial reasons. Nonetheless, the much larger boycotts seen in the previous three Summer Olympics (1976, 1980 and 1984) were avoided, resulting in the largest number of participating nations during the Cold War era.

Overview

In late September 1981, when the IOC awarded the 1988 Olympics to Seoul, the Olympic world was stunned. The choice was highly controversial as many prominent nations in the Olympic Movement, notably the Soviet Bloc nations, did not have diplomatic relations with the Seoul government. After the political problems that had marred the last few Olympics, there was widespread concern that another boycott would ensue because of this.

The problem became more complicated in July 1985 when DPR (North) Korea demanded that it be allowed to co-host the Games with the Republic of Korea. Over the next three years the IOC negotiated with North Korea and offered to allow it to stage several events. However, no IOC concession was ever enough for the North, who wanted equal co-host status and an equal number of events. They demanded this despite the fact that the Games were close at hand and they had no possible hope of building the necessary facilities in time. When the IOC would not concede further to the North's demands, North Korea announced that it would definitely boycott the Seoul Olympics.

By then, however, most of the Eastern Bloc countries had agreed to compete in Seoul, making 1988 the first Summer Olympic competition in 12 years between the United States, the Soviet Union and the German Democratic Republic. After the North Korean's final boycott announcement, Cuba and Ethiopia also announced that they would not attend the Olympics, out of solidarity with North Korea. Nicaragua, Albania, and the Seychelles also did not attend the Olympics, though their reasons were less clear and may not have been directly related to any boycott.

But the Seoul Games went on and saw the largest participation in Olympics history. There were more nations and more countries represented than ever before. The Games themselves were excellent and very well run. Controversies and political intrusions, unlike the Games of the last 20 years, were relatively few and comparatively minor.

Three swimmers and one female track & field athlete dominated the sporting events. In the pool, the GDR's [Kristin Otto] broke all sorts of records by winning six gold medals. It was an unmatched performance by a woman at the Olympics. Her only rival for swimming supremacy was America's [Janet Evans] who won three gold medals. But they never raced each other, as Otto was a sprinter and Evans a distance swimmer.

On the men's side of the pool, [Matt Biondi] was attempting to equal [Mark Spitz]'s record of seven gold medals. He failed in his first two events, taking a silver and a bronze. However, he then won gold in his last five events, to equal Spitz's haul of seven medals, though they had a bit less lustre.

On the track, the world was stunned by the performances of [Florence Griffith Joyner]. A solid world-class sprinter for a decade, she had re-dedicated herself in 1988 and had shattered records at the American Olympic Trials. At the Olympics she won the [100] and [200], setting world records in the 200 finals. In the 100, she posted a time that was wind-aided, but was otherwise the fastest time ever recorded. She then helped the American women win a gold medal in the [4×100 relay]. Finally, she was asked by the American coaches to run anchor in the [4×400 relay]. She did so, and narrowly missed catching the Soviet's [Olha Bryzhina], as the Americans won a silver medal. Her total haul was three gold medals and one silver.

The biggest media event of the 1988 Olympic Games was the disqualification of Canadian sprinter [Ben Johnson], after he had won the [100 metres] in the world record time of 9.79, and defeating [Carl Lewis] in the process. But a few days later, Johnson tested positive for stanazolol, an anabolic steroid, and was disqualified with Lewis receiving the gold medal. After the uproar of the scandal, the Canadian launched an inquiry into drug use in international sport, the Dubin Inqury. At the inquiry, Johnson admitted he had used steroids for several years.

One of Seoul's legacies to the Olympic Movement was a new Olympic Flag. The main Olympic flag was termed the Antwerp flag, because it had been made in 1920 and donated to the IOC by the Antwerp organizing committee. But the flag was worn and it was soon to be retired to the Olympic Museum. Seoul provided the IOC with a replacement, fashioned from pure raw Korean silk, with the needlework done by skilled Korean craftsmen. Thus the Seoul legacy will literally fly over many future Olympic Games.

  

Host city selection

Seoul was chosen to host the Summer Games through a vote held on 30 September 1981, finishing ahead of the Japanese city of Nagoya. Below was the vote count that occurred at the 84th IOC Session and 11th Olympic Congress in Baden-Baden, West Germany.

 
1988 Summer Olympics bidding result
City Country (NOC) Round 1
Seoul  South Korea 52
Nagoya  Japan 27

After the Olympics were awarded, Seoul also received the opportunity to stage the 10th Asian Games in 1986, using them to test its preparation for the Olympics.

Application and choice of venue

The idea of ​​hosting the Olympics in South Korea first came to light in the late 1970s. With the World Championships in shooting in 1978 and the Women's World Basketball Championship a year later, the country had its first major sporting events. As a result of the success of the World Cup, the President of the Shooting Federation, Park Chong-kyu , was elected President of the Olympic Committee of South Korea (KOC) in February 1979 and Chairman of the Korean Amateur Sports Association (KASA). He commissioned a feasibility study to test Seoul's suitability as a venue for the Olympics.

In June 1979, the KOC announced these aspirations at the General Assembly of the Association of National Olympic Committees (ANOC) in San Juan . A seven-member Advisory Group of the National Sports Committee decided on 3 September 1979 to contest the 1988 Summer Olympics and the 1986 Asian Games , Seoul Mayors Chung Sang-chon on 8 October, after President Park Chung-hee's approval announced. Park Chung-hee was murdered two and a half weeks after the official announcement. The subsequent political purges also fell victim to KOC President Park Chong-kyu, who lost all offices.

With the end of the Fourth Republic also the Olympic bid suffered a setback. Education Minister Rhee Kyo-ho announced on November 27, 1980, that Seoul does not see himself financially able to align. It was not until the intervention of new President Chun Doo-hwan , who offered state support for the candidature, that the plans could be followed up so that the KOC would officially submit the application to the IOC . The new president of the recruitment committee was Chung Ju-yung , the chairman of the Hyundai group and president of the Federation of Industrialists, whose work of persuasion focused primarily on developing countries. The bidding committee promised these countries financial support for the South Korean Olympic Games.

With a view to the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico , the application committee also pointed out that South Korea as a developing country could host the Olympic Games. It also dismissed fears over the political situation in the Korean Peninsula and the dictatorship in South Korea. Likewise, an Olympic boycott of socialist states was feared because South Korea at this time had no diplomatic relations with them. All in all, Seoul's bid was limited to an outsider chance against its only competitor, the Japanese city of Nagoya  

The choice of the venue of the 1988 Summer Games took place on September 30, 1981 in Baden-Baden . In the first ballot Seoul prevailed with 52 to 27 votes against Nagoya. Reason for the surprisingly clear election results were the arrogant Japanese delegation, fears of Nagoya's financial difficulties and general economic interests in South Korea. In addition, Horst Dassler , head of the Adidas Group, have exercised influence on the electoral behavior by campaigning for developing countries for Seoul as a venue. This should not have been economical, but his personal interest in Korea was the reason.

Organization

After the successful application was founded on 2 November 1981, the Seoul Olympic Organizing Committee (SLOOC), whose first president was Kim Yong-shik . On July 11, 1983, the future president of South Korea, Roh Tae-woo , took over this post until he handed it over to Park Seh-jik on May 7, 1985. In addition to the preparation of the Olympic Games SLOOC was from 1982 also charged with the organization of the Asian Games of 1986. On February 14, 1983, the Asian Games Organizing Committee (SAGOC) was incorporated into the SLOOC. The organizing committee employed 1428 people at the start of the Olympic Games, plus 27,221 volunteers. 

The SLOOC generated revenues of 909,840 million won , with 224,694 million won alone from the marketing of the TV rights. Further high revenues came from the coin program with 135,235 million won and the lottery with 118,804 million. In addition, there were 241,634 million won in donations and donations. In the run-up to the Olympic Summer and Winter Games of 1988, the marketing of the games was optimized. Instead of a large number of sponsors (it had been 306 in Montreal in 1976) was launched between 1985 and 1988, the "Olympic Program", which included nine financially strong sponsors such as Coca-Cola , VISA and Panasonic . Calgary and Seoul each received a share of the achieved $ 96 million. The SLOOC also had 23 other sponsors and 57 outfitters who got involved. 

Revenue was offset by expenses of 568,391 million won. The construction of the sports facilities cost 237,795 million won, the competitions 26,053 million and the Olympic village and the press center 30,931 million. In addition, the state invested billions in the development of public infrastructure, with the focus on transport and tourism. He has spent on improving environmental protection and health system standards. In addition, the state also promoted cultural institutions and events. The profit of 341.5 billion won earned by the organizing committee went to the Seoul Olympic Sports Promotion Foundation, founded on 20 April 1989.

In the run-up to the Olympic Games, the state tightened the measures for environmental protection. So it was the drivers of 750,000 private cars only every other day allowed to use them. The government also ordered the closure of the coal- fired bathhouses three days before the marathon to improve air quality for the competition. However, these efforts were only in advance and for the period of the Games and were then withdrawn. 

Sports Policy

In preparation for the Games, efforts were made to prevent another Olympics boycott by the Eastern bloc, as in 1984 in Los Angeles. The lack of diplomatic relations between South Korea and socialist states was aggravated. This prompted IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch to engage in the participation of these states. For example, at the meeting of the National Olympic Committees in Mexico City in November 1984, the "Declaration of Mexico" was adopted, in which the participants agreed, among other things, to the venue of the 1988 Olympic Games. The approval of the Soviet Union was equivalent to a commitment of participation, whereupon various socialist NOCs reacted with incomprehension. The GDR had already decided after the Games of Los Angeles to participate in Seoul again. The IOC also decided to send out the invitations to the games directly, and did not leave this task to the organizing committee as before. Despite these developments, the IOC thought internally about the possibility of relocating the games and exploring Munich's suitability as an alternative. 

Another point of conflict was North Korea's involvement in hosting the Olympic Games. Encouraged by Fidel Castro , North Korea demanded the co-alignment of the Games in late 1985. Subsequently, in Lausanne on 8 and 9 January 1986, a meeting of the North and South Korean Olympic Committees led by the IOC President took place. North Korea demanded that eleven of the 23 Olympic sports be conducted on its own territory, and also wanted its own opening and closing ceremony. There should be a joint organizing committee and a united team. Negotiations continued at other meetings, but were unsuccessful as the IOC failed to meet North Korea's demands and only agreed to grant half of the desired sporting events to the North. Thus, the focus was limited to Seoul and South Korea alone.  North Korea boycotted the failed Summer Olympics in Seoul following failed negotiations to host the event, with support from Cuba, Nicaragua and Ethiopia, who also stayed away from the games with their teams. This boycott also joined Albania and the Seychelles. In order to avoid sanctions of the IOC, these states refrained from calling their absence from the Games as a boycott. Until recently, the participation of Madagascar had been expected, which is why it was assumed at the opening ceremony of 160 starting nations, the country, however, joined the North Korean boycott. 

During the 84th IOC session in Baden-Baden in 1981, the opening of the Olympic Movement for professional athletes was operated and the admissions rule 26, designated as amateur paragraph, changed. The Chairman of the Admissions Commission, Willi Daume , achieved the necessary two-thirds majority for his proposed amendment by downplaying the urgency of the change and presenting it more as a reinterpretation of the hitherto prevailing rule. For example, sports governing bodies should be given greater leeway and athletes should be eligible for sponsorship-funded funds , while direct links between athletes and sponsors should continue to be prohibited. In the practical implementation of the fund idea fell into the background and it came to the rule that professionals in the period of four weeks before the start of the games until two weeks after the games in matters of sponsorship of the control of the respective National Olympic Must submit to committees. At the Summer Olympics in 1988 it was the first time for the approval of professionals in tennis and table tennis. In the following games, this opening was still expanding.

Significance of 1988 Olympics in South Korea

Hosting the 1988 Olympics presented an opportunity to bring international attention to South Korea. The idea for South Korea to place a bid for the 1988 Games emerged during the last days of the Park Chung-hee administration in the late 1970s. After President Park's assassination in 1979, Chun Doo-hwan, his successor, submitted Korea's bid to the IOC in September 1981, in hopes that the increased international exposure brought by the Olympics would legitimize his authoritarian regime amidst increasing political pressure for democratization, provide protection from increasing threats from North Korea, and showcase the Korean economic miracle to the world community.South Korea was awarded the bid on 30 September 1981, becoming the 20th host nation (16th in the Summer Olympics), as well as the second Asian nation (following Japan in the 1964 Summer Olympics) and the first mainland Asian nation.

Copying the model of 1964 Tokyo Olympics as a rite of passage for the Japanese economy and re-integration of Japan in the family of nations in the post-war era, the South Korean government hoped to use the Olympics as a "coming-out party". The Olympics gave a powerful impetus to the development of South Korea's relations with Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union and with China.

In utilizing media events theory, Larson and Park investigated the 1988 Seoul Olympics as a form of political communication. They revealed the significance of South Korea's military government throughout the period of the Olympic bid and preparation, followed by the many advantages of the Seoul Olympics: rapid economic modernization, social mobilization and the legitimization of the military dictatorship.

Expansion of "vagrant" camps prior to Olympics

Existing camps for "vagrants" (homeless persons) were ramped up prior to the 1988 Olympics. An Associated Press article states that homeless and alcoholic persons, "but mostly children and the disabled" were arrested and sent to these camps to prepare for the Olympics. In addition, a prosecutor had his investigation into the Brothers Home camp limited at a number of levels of government "in part out of fear of an embarrassing international incident on the eve of the Olympics."

In 1975, the previous president of South Korea had begun a policy of rounding up vagrants. According to government documents obtained by the Associated Press, from 1981 to 1986 the number of persons held increased from 8,600 to more than 16,000. Police officers often received promotions based on the number of vagrants they had arrested, and owners of facilities received a subsidy based on the number of persons held. There were multiple reports of inmates being raped or beaten, and sometimes beaten to death.

4,000 of these "vagrants" were held at the Brothers Home facility. Many of the guards were former inmates who had been "promoted" because of loyalty to the camp's owner. Various money-making operations were conducted such as manufacturing ball-point pens and fishing hooks, as well as clothing for Daewoo. Only a few inmates were paid belatedly for this work.

By accident while on a hunting trip, prosecutor Kim Yong Won heard about and visited a work detail of prisoners in ragged clothes being overseen by guards with wooden bats and dogs. In his words, he knew immediately that "a very serious crime" was occurring. And in January 1987, he led a raid on the facility and found beaten and malnourished inmates. However, he received political pressure at various levels to reduce the charges against the owner, managers, and guards. In the end, the owner only served two-and-a-half years in prison.

The Brothers Home was a religious facility based on the Christian faith. There were in fact inspections by both city officials and church officials. However, these were scheduled inspections in which healthier inmates were presented in carefully planned and orchestrated circumstances. There were no unannounced inspections.

In the 1990s, construction workers found about 100 human bones on a mountainside outside the location of the former Brothers Home.

1988 Summer Olympics boycott

In preparation for the 1988 Olympics, the International Olympic Committee worked to prevent another Olympic boycott by the Eastern Bloc as had happened at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. This was made more difficult by the lack of diplomatic relations between South Korea and communist countries. This prompted action by the IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch, who was committed to the participation of these countries. Thus, at the Assembly of National Olympic Committees in Mexico City in November 1984, the "Mexico Declaration"  was adopted; by it, the participants agreed to include the host of the Olympic Games in 1988. The agreement of the Soviet Union was reached in 1987. After the Los Angeles games, East Germany had already decided to participate again in Seoul.
Countries boycotting or absent from the 1988 Games are shaded blue
The IOC also decided that it would send invitations to the 1988 Games itself and did not leave this task to the organizing committee as had been done before. Despite these developments, behind the scenes, the IOC did consider relocating the Games and explored the suitability of Munich as an alternative.

Another point of conflict was the involvement of North Korea in hosting the Games, something that had been encouraged by Cuban president Fidel Castro, who called for North Korea to be considered joint host of the Games. As a result, on 8 and 9 January 1986 in Lausanne, Switzerland, the IOC President chaired a meeting of the North and South Korean Olympic Committees. North Korea demanded that eleven of the 23 Olympic sports be carried out on its territory, and also demanded special opening and closing ceremonies. It wanted a joint organizing committee and a united team. The negotiations were continued into another meeting, but were not successful. The IOC did not meet the demands of North Korea and only about half of the desired sporting events were offered to the North. So the focus thereafter was solely on Seoul and South Korea.

The games were boycotted by North Korea and its ally, Cuba. Ethiopia, Albania and the Seychelles did not respond to the invitations sent by the IOC. Nicaragua did not participate due to athletic and financial considerations. The participation of Madagascar had been expected, and their team was expected at the opening ceremony of 160 nations. However, the country withdrew for financial reasons.

Official theme song

In 1988, the Seoul Olympic Organizing Committee (SLOOC) decided to produce and distribute an official song of the Seoul Games to publicize the Games to all the IOC member nations, encouraging their participation in the festival and consolidating the harmony and friendship of the entire world citizens through the song. The song "Hand in Hand" was written by Italian composer Giorgio Moroder and American songwriter Tom Whitlock, and performed by singing group Koreana.

"Hand in Hand" (Korean: 손에 손 잡고; RR: Sone Son Japgo) is a song by South Korean band Koreana that was the official song of the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. It was sung in both Korean and English.

The song's running time was 4:13, and it was produced by Giovanni Giorgio Moroder. Its English lyrics were written by Tom Whitlock, and its Korean lyrics were written by Kim Moon-hwan

In 2013, Giovanni Giorgio Moroder said that the original singer of the demo recording which he presented to PolyGram was Joe Pizzulo, not Kore

Chart performance

Hand in Hand (Olympic theme song).jpg
  The song topped music charts in 17 countries, including Sweden, West Germany, the Philippines, Spain, Switzerland, Austria, Japan and Hong Kong. The album Hand in Hand sold more than 12 million copies worldwide.ana.

Cover versions

  • Mandarin version of the song, called 心手相連 (xin shou xiang lian, hearts and hands join together), performed by Hong Kong singer Alan Tam.
  • Cantonese version of the song, called 一呼百應 (Yat hu bat ying, many people respond to one call), performed by Hong Kong singers Timothy Wong and Pearl Lee.
  • A Swedish version, called "Jul i vinterland" (Eng. Christmas in Winterland"), with lyrics by Keith Almgren, has been recorded by Wizex in 1988 on Christmas compilation albums and on single in 1991.
  • On August 14, 2016, South Korean girl group I.O.I released a digital single and remake of the song.
  • In Venezuela, the group Papel Carbón made a version of this song in Spanish.

Venues


  • Seoul Sports Complex venues
    • Seoul Olympic Stadium[E] – opening/closing ceremonies, athletics, equestrian (jumping individual final), football (final)
    • Jamsil Indoor Swimming Pool[E] – diving, modern pentathlon (swimming), synchronized swimming, swimming, water polo
    • Jamsil Gymnasium[E] – basketball, volleyball (final)
    • Jamsil Students' Gymnasium[E] – boxing
    • Jamsil Baseball Stadium[E] – baseball (demonstration)
  • Olympic Park venues
    • Olympic Velodrome[N] – cycling (track)
    • Olympic Weightlifting Gymnasium[N] – weightlifting
    • Olympic Fencing Gymnasium[N] – fencing, modern pentathlon (fencing)
    • Olympic Gymnastics Hall[N] – gymnastics
    • Olympic Tennis Center[N] – tennis
    • Mongchon Tosong[N] – modern pentathlon (running)
  • Other venues in metropolitan Seoul
    • Seoul Equestrian Park– equestrian (all but jumping individual final), modern pentathlon (riding)
    • Han River Regatta Course/Canoeing Site Course[N] – canoeing, rowing
    • Saemaul Sports Hall[N] – volleyball preliminaries
    • Hanyang University Gymnasium[N] – volleyball preliminaries
    • Changchung Gymnasium[E] – judo, taekwondo (demonstration)
    • Seoul National University Gymnasium – badminton (demonstration), table tennis
    • Royal Bowling Center[E] – bowling (demonstration)
    • Dongdaemun Stadium[E] – football preliminaries
    • Hwarang Archery Field[E], Nowon-gu – archery
    • Taereung International Shooting Range[E], Taenung – modern pentathlon (shooting), shooting
    • Streets of Seoul – athletics (20 km/ 50 km walk, marathon)
    • Jangchung Gymnasium – taekwondo (demonstration), judo
  • Venues outside Seoul
    • Sangmu Gymnasium[N], Seongnam – wrestling
    • Daejeon Stadium[E], Daejeon – football preliminaries
    • Daegu Stadium[E], Daegu – football preliminaries
    • Busan Stadium[E], Busan – football preliminaries
    • Gwangju Stadium[E], Gwangju – football preliminaries
    • Suwon Gymnasium[N], Suwon – handball
    • Seongnam Stadium[E], Seongnam – field hockey
    • Busan Yachting Center[N], Busan – sailing
    • Tongillo Road Course – cycling (individual road race, road team time trial)

E Existing facilities modified or refurbished in preparation for the Olympic Games.
N New facilities constructed in preparation for the Olympic Games.

Olympic Village

The Olympic Village is located in Songpa-gu, about two kilometers from the Olympic Stadium. It covers an area of ​​626,664 square meters, housing 86 apartment buildings with 3692 residential units. In the village there was a VIP lounge, a swimming pool , a religious center where members of six religions could pray, and a medical center that reached the level of a normal hospital. There were also held cultural events such as stage shows and film screenings. The refectory offered space for 4200 people. Next to the Olympic Village is the press village, which comprises 36 buildings with 1848 housing units. In the cities of Busan, Daegu, Gwangju and Daejeon there were smaller sub-villages for athletes whose competitions took place in these places.

Cost

According to The Oxford Olympics Study data is not available to establish the cost of the Seoul 1988 Summer Olympics. Average cost for Summer Games since 1960, for which data are available, is US$5.2 billion.

Sports

The 1988 Summer Olympics featured 23 different sports encompassing 31 disciplines, and medals were awarded in 237 events. In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

  • Aquatics
    • Diving (4)
    • Swimming (31)
    • Synchronized swimming (2)
    • Water polo (1)
  • Archery (4)
  • Athletics (42)
  • Basketball (2)
  • Boxing (12)

 

  • Canoeing (12)
  • Cycling
    • Road (3)
    • Track (6)
  • Equestrian
    • Dressage (2)
    • Eventing (2)
    • Show jumping (2)
  • Fencing (8)

 

  • Field hockey (2)
  • Football (1)
  • Gymnastics
    • Artistic (14)
    • Rhythmic (1)
  • Handball (2)
  • Judo (7)
  • Modern pentathlon (2)
  • Rowing (14)

 

  • Sailing (8)
  • Shooting (13)
  • Table tennis (4)
  • Tennis (4)
  • Volleyball (2)
  • Weightlifting (10)
  • Wrestling
    • Freestyle (10)
    • Greco-Roman (10)

Demonstration sports

These were the demonstration sports in the games:

  • Badminton (details)
  • Baseball (details)
  • Bowling (details)
  • Judo (details)
  • Taekwondo (details)
  • Wheelchair racing (details)
 

Calendar

All times are local KDT (UTC+10)[a]
 ●  Opening ceremony     Event competitions  ●  Event finals  ●  Closing ceremony
Date September October
17th
Sat
18th
Sun
19th
Mon
20th
Tue
21st
Wed
22nd
Thu
23rd
Fri
24th
Sat
25th
Sun
26th
Mon
27th
Tue
28th
Wed
29th
Thu
30th
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
Archery                           ● ● ● ●  
Athletics            
● ●

● ●
● ●
● ● ●
● ● ● ●
● ● ● ●
  ● ● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
Basketball                            
Boxing                             ● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
Canoeing                           ● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
 
Cycling         ● ●
● ●
           
Diving                        
Equestrian           ● ●       ● ●      
Fencing                
Field hockey                            
Football (soccer)                              
Gymnastics       ● ● ●
● ● ●
● ●
● ●
           
Handball                            
Judo                  
Modern pentathlon           ● ●                    
Rowing               ● ●
● ●
● ● ●
● ●
● ●
● ● ●
             
Sailing                     ● ● ● ●
● ● ● ●
         
Shooting   ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●                
Swimming     ● ●
● ●
  ● ●
● ● ●
● ●
● ● ●
● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
             
Synchronized swimming                            
Table tennis                           ● ● ● ●  
Tennis                           ● ● ● ●  
Volleyball                            
Water polo                              
Weightlifting            
Wrestling      
● ●
● ●
● ●

● ●
           
● ●

● ●
● ●
● ●
 
Total gold medals   5 7 9 14 17 12 30 26 9 15 9 11 36 37 9
Ceremonies                            
Date 17th
Sat
18th
Sun
19th
Mon
20th
Tue
21st
Wed
22nd
Thu
23rd
Fri
24th
Sat
25th
Sun
26th
Mon
27th
Tue
28th
Wed
29th
Thu
30th
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
September October
 
At the time of the multi-sports event, the time in South Korea was on a trial daylight saving time.
 

Participating National Olympic Committees

Athletes from 159 nations competed at the Seoul Games. Aruba, American Samoa, Brunei, Cook Islands, Maldives, Vanuatu, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and South Yemen made their first Olympic appearance at these Games. Guam made their first Summer Olympic appearance at these games having participated in the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary.

In the following list, the number in parentheses indicates the number of athletes from each nation that competed in Seoul:[49]

 
 Participants (blue nations had their first entrance). Number of athletes sent by each nation.
 Participating National Olympic Committees
  •  Afghanistan (5)
  •  Algeria (46)
  •  American Samoa (6)
  •  Andorra (3)
  •  Angola (29)
  •  Antigua and Barbuda (16)
  •  Argentina (125)
  •  Aruba (8)
  •  Australia (295)
  •  Austria (88)
  •  Bahamas (17)
  •  Bahrain (11)
  •  Bangladesh (6)
  •  Barbados (17)
  •  Belgium (65)
  •  Belize (10)
  •  Benin (7)
  •  Bermuda (13)
  •  Bhutan (3)
  •  Bolivia (7)
  •  Botswana (8)
  •  Brazil (171)
  •  British Virgin Islands (3)
  •  Bulgaria (186)
  •  Burkina Faso (6)
  •  Brunei (0)Note[›]
  •  Burma (2)
  •  Cameroon (15)
  •  Canada (379)
  •  Cayman Islands (8)
  •  Central African Republic (16)
  •  Chad (6)
  •  Chile (18)
  •  China (293)
  •  Colombia (43)
  •  Republic of the Congo (9)
  •  Cook Islands (6)
  •  Costa Rica (16)
  •  Cyprus (9)
  •  Czechoslovakia (171)
  •  Denmark (92)
  •  Djibouti (7)
  •  Dominican Republic (16)
  •  Ecuador (26)
  •  Egypt (54)
  •  El Salvador (6)
  •  Equatorial Guinea (6)
  •  Fiji (24)
  •  Finland (79)
  •  France (309)
  •  Gabon (3)
  •  The Gambia (7)
  •  East Germany (291)
  •  West Germany (404)
  •  Ghana (18)
  •  Great Britain (369)
  •  Greece (58)
  •  Grenada (6)
  •  Guam (20)
  •  Guatemala (30)
  •  Guinea (8)
  •  Guyana (8)
  •  Haiti (4)
  •  Honduras (7)
  •  Hong Kong (49)
  •  Hungary (203)
  •  Iceland (32)
  •  India (46)
  •  Indonesia (31)
  •  Iran (27)
  •  Iraq (31)
  •  Ireland (65)
  •  Israel (19)
  •  Italy (286)
  •  Ivory Coast (32)
  •  Jamaica (35)
  •  Japan (289)
  •  Jordan (9)
  •  Kenya (76)
  •  South Korea (467) (host)
  •  Kuwait (31)
  •  Laos (3)
  •  Lebanon (8)
  •  Lesotho (6)
  •  Liberia (8)
  •  Libya (6)
  •  Liechtenstein (12)
  •  Luxembourg (8)
  •  Malawi (17)
  •  Malaysia (13)
  •  Maldives (7)
  •  Mali (6)
  •  Malta (9)
  •  Mauritania (6)
  •  Mauritius (8)
  •  Mexico (91)
  •  Monaco (9)
  •  Mongolia (28)
  •  Morocco (27)
  •  Mozambique (6)
  •  Nepal (18)
  •  Netherlands (192)
  •  Netherlands Antilles (3)
  •  New Zealand (93)
  •  Niger (8)
  •  Nigeria (76)
  •  Norway (79)
  •  Oman (13)
  •  Pakistan (31)
  •  Panama (6)
  •  Papua New Guinea (12)
  •  Paraguay (10)
  •  Peru (22)
  •  Philippines (33)
  •  Poland (152)
  •  Portugal (68)
  •  Puerto Rico (70)
  •  Qatar (12)
  •  Romania (64)
  •  Rwanda (6)
  •  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (6)
  •  San Marino (11)
  •  Saudi Arabia (14)
  •  Senegal (22)
  •  Sierra Leone (15)
  •  Singapore (8)
  •  Solomon Islands (7)
  •  Somalia (7)
  •  Soviet Union (514)
  •  Spain (269)
  •  Sri Lanka (6)
  •  Sudan (8)
  •  Suriname (6)
  •  Swaziland (11)
  •  Sweden (205)
  •  Switzerland (109)
  •  Syria (16)
  •  Chinese Taipei (90)
  •  Tanzania (10)
  •  Thailand (16)
  •  Togo (6)
  •  Tonga (6)
  •  Trinidad and Tobago (6)
  •  Tunisia (41)
  •  Turkey (50)
  •  Uganda (25)
  •  United Arab Emirates (12)
  •  United States (527)
  •  Uruguay (14)
  •  Vanuatu (6)
  •  Venezuela (18)
  •  Vietnam (10)
  •  Virgin Islands (26)
  •  Samoa (11)
  •  North Yemen (11)
  •  South Yemen (8)
  •  Yugoslavia (157)
  •  Zaire (15)
  •  Zambia (31)
  •  Zimbabwe (31)
^ Note: Brunei participated in the Opening Ceremonies and Closing Ceremonies, marking its first appearance at the Olympic Games, but its delegation consisted of only one swimming official.
When the team from the Dominican Republic marched in during the Parade of Nations, the superimposed map erroneously showed the location of Cuba.

Medal count

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1988 Games.

 
Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Soviet Union (URS) 55 31 46 132
2  East Germany (GDR) 37 35 30 102
3  United States (USA) 36 31 27 94
4  South Korea (KOR)* 12 10 11 33
5  West Germany (FRG) 11 14 15 40
6  Hungary (HUN) 11 6 6 23
7  Bulgaria (BUL) 10 12 13 35
8  Romania (ROU) 7 11 6 24
9  France (FRA) 6 4 6 16
10  Italy (ITA) 6 4 4 14
Totals (10 nations) 191 158 164 513

Mascot

The official mascot for the 1988 Summer Olympic Games was Hodori. It was a stylized tiger designed by Kim Hyun as an amicable Amur tiger, portraying the friendly and hospitable traditions of the Korean people.[51] Hodori's female version was called Hosuni.

The name 호돌이 Hodori was chosen from 2,295 suggestions sent in by the public. It is a compound of ho, the Sino-Korean bound morpheme for "tiger" (appearing also in the usual word 호랑이 horangi for "tiger"), and 돌이 dori, a diminutive for "boys".

Logo, mascot and motto

The 1988 Summer Olympics logo shows a Sam-taeguk , a traditional Korean symbol. Viewing the color fields as leading to the center was seen as a sign that people are coming together in Korea, interpreting the view as leading away from the center, that people are following a path of search for happiness and success. [20] The mascot of the games was " Hodori " and was designed by Kim Kwang-hyun . It was a little tiger that should stand for friendliness and hospitality. The name was chosen from 2295 suggestions from the population. "Ho" in Korean means "tiger" and "domori" is a form of boyhood vulgarity. The motto of the 1988 Summer Olympics was "Harmony and Progress".

The official song of the games was "Hand In Hand" of the group Koreana - the text is English and Korean . In addition, " One Moment In Time " by Whitney Houston and in Germany "Go For Gold" of the German band The Winners developed into hits of these Olympic Games.

Broadcast rights

The 1988 Games were covered by the following broadcasters:

  •  Argentina: Argentina Televisora Color, Canal 13 Artear, Canal 11 Telefe, Canal 9 Libertad, Teledos
  •  Australia: Network Ten
  •  Belgium: RTBF, BRT
  •  Brazil: Rede Globo, Rede Manchete, Rede Record, SBT, Rede Bandeirantes
  •  Brunei: RTB Channel 5, RTB Channel 10
  •  Canada: CBC
  •  Chile: TVN, UC-TV
  •  China: CCTV
  •  Colombia: OTI (Inravisión Cadena Uno: RTI Producciones, RCN Televisión, Caracol Televisión, Producciones JES, Producciones PUNCH, Datos y Mensajes)
  •  Czechoslovakia: ČST
  •  Denmark: DR
  •  East Germany: DFF
  •  Finland: YLE
  •  France: TF1
  •  Hong Kong: ATV, TVB
  •  Hungary: Magyar Televízió
  •  India: Doordarshan
  •  Indonesia: TVRI Jakarta
  •  Ireland: RTÉ
  •  Israel: IBA
  •  Italy: RAI
  •  Japan: NHK
  •  Macau: TDM
  •  Malaysia: RTM TV1, STMB TV3
  •  Mexico: Televisa
  •  Netherlands: NPO
  •  New Zealand: TVNZ
  •  Norway: NRK
  •  Paraguay: Paraguay Televisora Color, Canal 4 Telefuturo, Canal 9 SNT, Canal 13 RPC, Tevedos, Canal 5 TV Color, Canal 11 TV Color Asunción
  •  Peru: América Televisión, Panamericana Televisión
  •  Philippines: RPN, PTV
  •  Poland: TVP
  •  Portugal: RTP
  •  Puerto Rico: WAPA-TV
  •  Romania: TVR
  •  Singapore: SBC Channel 12
  •  South Korea: KBS, MBC
  •  Soviet Union: CT-USSR
  •  Spain: TVE
  •  Sweden: SVT
  •  Taiwan: TTV, CTV, CTS
  •  Thailand: National Television Thailand
  •  Turkey: TRT
  •  United Kingdom: BBC, ITV, Channel 4
  •  United States: NBC
  •  Uruguay: Monte Carlo TV, Canal 10, Teledoce, Uruguay Televisora Color, Canal 7, Canal 8 TV Color, Montevideo TV
  •  Venezuela: Venevision and RCTV
  •  West Germany: ARD, ZDF
  •  Yugoslavia: JRT

doping

At the 1988 Summer Olympics, a total of 1,600 doping tests were carried out.  The doping investigators transferred a total of ten athletes of the performance manipulation,  wherein the weight lifting was the most affected. In addition to the athletes, the horses were also tested, with three could be proven doping.

The games of Seoul were under the shadow of the exposed doping case Ben Johnson , who was proven after his world record run to over 100 meters of gold the abuse of anabolic steroids . The 100-meter finals had previously been styled medially to the event of the 1988 Olympic Games and was celebrated as a century run. Johnson asserted his innocence in spite of the positive doping test and proceeded from a conspiracy against him, in which his urine, the banned substance should have been added subsequently.  After the Canadians the title had been stripped of the gold medal went over 100 meters at the American Carl Lewis . This was according to Wade ExumUSO, the USOC's director of doping control US), as three other US gold medalists tested positive for doping in the run-up to the Seoul Games, but this was hushed up. However this statement led to no condemnation or revocation of the title, instead, the IOC Carl Lewis spoke in 2004 in Madrid.

The actual number of doping cases at the 1988 Summer Olympics, in addition to the ten revealed, is likely to be significantly higher. In the German Democratic Republic, for example, as in many other states of the Eastern bloc, systematic doping was the norm.  Thus, several doubts were voiced on the legality of the titles of Kristin Otto . Doping allegations were also voiced against the three-time best athlete, Florence Griffith-Joyner . In the Olympic season, however, she was tested negatively eleven times. After her death as a result of a stroke in 1998 at the age of 38 years, claims were made, an autopsy to her , as some anti-doping activists were suspected as the cause of death doping episodes. In addition, her training partner, Lorna Bootheto have been surprised by the leap in performance Florence Griffith-Joyners and confirmed in 1987 by a nurse that she had been treated with anabolic steroids and testosterone . Nevertheless, the connection between doping and the death of Griffith-Joyner was also called into question by sports doctors.  In addition to the two top athletes of these games, the performance of other athletes are doubtful. For example, the cyclist Robert Lechner doped (BRD), who won bronze, in the run-up to the games and put the funds down so that they were no longer detectable at the Olympics.

1988 Seoul

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Ali Dad  Afghanistan Wrestling Furosemide  
Kerrith Brown  Great Britain Judo Furosemide  
Kalman Csengeri  Hungary Weightlifting Stanozolol  
Mitko Grablev  Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide 1st, gold medalist(s) (56 kg)
Angell Guenchev  Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide 1st, gold medalist(s) (67.5 kg)
Ben Johnson  Canada Athletics Stanozolol 1st, gold medalist(s) (men's 100 m)
Fernando Mariaca  Spain Weightlifting Pemoline  
Jorge Quesada  Spain Modern pentathlon Propanolol  
Andor Szanyi  Hungary Weightlifting Stanozolol 2nd, silver medalist(s) (100 kg)
Alexander Watson  Australia Modern Pentathlon Caffeine  

Impact and rating

During the preparation of the games in South Korea in the 1980s there were some violent domestic turmoil. In 1980, for example, there was the Gwangju massacre , which killed (according to official figures) 170 civilians calling for reform. As a result, the situation calmed down, but remained tense. In April 1987, when President Chun Doo-hwan confirmed his timely resignation but announced that the new president should be re-elected by the old electoral college, the candidate's presentation led to ongoing protests and street battles . In June 1987, Roh gave Tae-woo, the chairman and candidate for president of the Democratic Justice Party , announced that he accepted all the demands of the demonstrators.  A new constitution was created with the participation of the opposition, which among other things guaranteed the fundamental rights.

South Korea considered the Olympics as a way of presentation. On the one hand there were 10,000 athletes and officials from 160 countries, including the politically important communist states such as the Soviet Union and the German Democratic Republic , but also 300,000 students attended the Games South Korea. The media coverage emphasized Korean culture, and overall, the host country displayed positive self-image. The positive view, however, met in part to rejection. For example, it was criticized that a large contingent of security forces for fear of disruption to the marathonaccompanied and therefore took place before only a few spectators. Other criticisms were the placement of student leaders outside Seoul and the strengthening of the American troop presence in the run-up to the Games.  On the other hand, the 1988 Summer Games are still considered a supporting element for the replacement of the authoritarian regime.

The Seoul Games also marked a turning point for the Olympic Movement. On the one hand, the big boycotts ended, and professional athletes were - as in tennis - allowed again. On the other hand, the doping case of Ben Johnson focused on the problem of doping , and the fight against doping became an important goal of the IOC. It was also the last games in which the Soviet Union and the German Democratic Republic, the two most successful nations in the medal table participated. After the political change in Eastern Europe 1989/1990 and the German reunification occurred at the Olympic Winter Games 1992 in Albertville and the1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona a team of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and a German team, which consisted of West and East German athletes.

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88 seoul olympic

"The glory of our national
history, the 1988 Seoul Olympics"
By respecting and adhering to the letter and the spirit of the
Olympic Charter in staging the Games, Korea made every
effort to provide an opportunity for all of the world's people to
make meaningful progress towards global harmony and the
long cherished aspiration of mankind for everlasting prosperity,
peace and happiness.
Korea is committed to making the Games a joyful festival in which many
cultures of the world can join in harmony along with the 5,000-year-old
culture of this country. Here, the youths of the world demonstrate their
strength and prowess to the fullest while enjoying the warm hospitality
of the Korean people and the beauty of the peninsula.

Introduction

88 seoul olympic

"The glory of our national
history, the 1988 Seoul Olympics"
By respecting and adhering to the letter and the spirit of the
Olympic Charter in staging the Games, Korea made every
effort to provide an opportunity for all of the world's people to
make meaningful progress towards global harmony and the
long cherished aspiration of mankind for everlasting prosperity,
peace and happiness.
Korea is committed to making the Games a joyful festival in which many
cultures of the world can join in harmony along with the 5,000-year-old
culture of this country. Here, the youths of the world demonstrate their
strength and prowess to the fullest while enjoying the warm hospitality
of the Korean people and the beauty of the peninsula.
Compertition
Schedule & Venues
Period Sep. 17, 1988 (Sat) - Oct. 2, 1988 (Sun)
Place Seoul, Kyung-ki Province and four other cities
34 stadiums, 72 practice sites, event places, etc.
Games
Official games 23 /237 gold medals
Demonstration games two /baseball, Taekwondo
Exhibition games two /badminton, bowling
Exhibition games 160 countries (including Korea)
Participating people - Athletes and executives: 13,304
- International executives: 7,670
- Press and staff: 15,293
Operative agents 49,712
Volunteers 27,221
Spectators 2,700,000
Tourists 240,000

Emblems

Emblems

As a representative symbol for projecting a visual image of the Seoul Olympic Games, the emblem featuring a Sam-tae-guk pattern is seen and recognized all around the world, along with the Olympic mascot, Hodori.

The emblem embraced the five Olympic rings on top of the samtaeguk, a traditional Korean pattern and visual image representing Korea.

The pattern is well known in Korea, being widely used as a decoration on fans, the gates of Korean-style homes, artifacts and folk crafts.

The Olympic emblem comes in two forms of patterns, centripetal motion and centrifugal motion. The centripetal motion represented the peoples of the world coming together to Korea, thus symbolizing worldwide harmony, while the centrifugal motion represented a march onward in search of man's lasting happiness and prosperity.

Hodori (1988 Seoul Olympic Mascot)

Mascot

To find a name for the mascot, the SLOOC offered a cash prize during a month-long campaign starting December 1, 1983. Six, 117 names were submitted. The criteria set by the SLOOC for the mascot's name was that it should suggest friendliness and a Korean flavor; its name should be easy to remember and pronounce; and it should be internationally applicable. A screening panel consisting of 11 experts in folklore, Korean alphabetic research, Zoology, Journalism, plus two foreigners recommended "Hodori" as the most suitable name in April 1984; Hodori thus became the name of the mascot.

As the mascot of the Seoul Olympic Games, the Korean tiger, long familiar to Koreans through myths and legend, was designed in the simple shape of a little tiger cub. The bodyline was contoured to give a soft feeling, and the mascot wore an Olympic medal around the neck to identify itself with the Olympics.

To enhance the Korean flavor, the figure wore the traditional Sang-mo hat of a Korean farmer's band player. The hat's spiraling streamer formed an S-shape to denote the first letter of Seoul, the host city.

Competition Timetable

01 DAY - 1988.09.17
olympic04-dt2.jpg
Five official games and the demonstration game Taekwondo were implemented on the first day of the Olympics.
The Korean volleyball team suffered a setback losing two sets to three during the 3-hour-long Group a preliminary match with Sweden held in Hanyang University Stadium.
The soccer superpower West Germany showed a smooth take-off by defeating China 3-0 in the Group a preliminary soccer match in Busan Gudeok Stadium, while Italy won the Group B preliminary match in Gwangju against Guatemala 5-2.
The unnamed Soviet athlete Irina Chilova won the first gold medal of the Seoul Olympics in the Women's Air Rifle finals.
Sorin Babii from Rumania defeated Igor Basinski from the Soviet Union, holding the world's record, to gain a gold medal in the Men's Free Pistol, giving a shock to the world.
Jeon Byeong-Gwan posted a new record in the 52kg weight lifting to win the first silver medal for Korea.
olympic04-dt3.jpg olympic04-dt4.jpg
In the Men's Aquatics Freestyle 200m finals, Australian dark horse Duncan Armstrong, despite being pursued by world stars such as Matt Biondi from the US and Michael Gross from West Germany, posted a new world record of 1 minute and 47.25 seconds to win a gold medal.
Christine Otto from East Germany won first place in the Women's Freestyle 100m, commencing her medal-seizing parade, and Janet Evans earned medals the first gold medal for America in the Women's Individual Medley 400m.
In the meantime, Greg Louganis from the US had an unfortunate accident when his head hit the springboard during the platform diving competition.
Nevertheless, beyond the circumstances, he competed by the next day for the Gold Medal. Greg Louganis finally won his second gold medal. His first gold medal had gained in 1984 LA Olympics.
On this day, American Janet Evans and Matt Biondi won the Women's Freestyle 400m and Men's Freestyle 100m, respectively, to hold 2 medals.
olympic04-dt5.jpg olympic04-dt6.jpg
Korea had the honor of winning the first gold medal in the Seoul Olympics on this day.
In the Greco-Roman 74kg finals held in Sangmu Gymnasium, Kim Yeong-Nam earned the first win for Korea by defeating the Soviet competitor Daulet Turhlyhanov on points.
Lee Jae-Seok also added a bronze medal by placing third in the 52kg weight class. Hungarian swimmer, Tamas Darnyi, one who had lost one of his eyesight, set a new world record in the Men's Individual Medley 400m, leaving a great impression.
Angel Guenchev from Bulgaria won a gold medal in weightlifting with a final new world record weight of 67.5kg, and Anthony Nesty from Suriname caused a tremendous commotion by defeating a number of world stars to win the Men's Butterfly Stroke 100m finals.
Korea lost to Argentina 1-2 in soccer, thus failing to advance to the quarterfinals. Christine Otto from East Germany added two more gold medals by winning the Women's Backstroke 100m and Women's Relay 400m, thus becoming the first individual to win 3 gold medals in the Seoul Olympics.
On this day, American Janet Evans and Matt Biondi won the Women's Freestyle 400m and Men's Freestyle 100m, respectively, to hold 2 medals.
olympic04-dt7.jpg olympic04-dt8.jpg
The first gold medal in Athletics was presented to the winner of the Women's Marathon. Rosa Mota from Portugal won the Women's Marathon along the Han River in fresh weather.
The Women's Individual Gymnastics, where Elena Shushunova from the Soviet Union vied with Daniela Silivas from Rumania, drew huge attention, ended up with Shushunova's victory by a narrow margin of 0.025 points.
In the "Showdown of the Century", Men's 100m, Ben Johnson from Canada became the gold medalist by renewing the world record with 9.79 seconds, only to be substituted by Carl Lewis with 9.92 for the reason of doping.
One of the happiest moments in Korea's gymnastic history was unfolded on this day. Park Jong-Hun gained total 1973.775 points in the 3-Horse Vault to acquire a copper medal, showing Korea's gymnastic potential.
Vladimir Artemov from the Soviet Union added 2 gold medals in the Parallel Bar and Horizontal Bar, accumulating total 4 gold medals.
olympic04-dt9.jpg olympic04-dt10.jpg
The highlights of this day were the Korean Kim Jae-Yeob and German Christine Otto. Kim Jae-Yeob obtained a gold medal by defeating American Kevin Asano in the Judo extra-light weight division, and Christine Otto touched the final board with 25.49 seconds in the Women's Freestyle 50m finals and gained a gold medal leaving the silver medal for China's top competitor Yanwei.
Matt Biondi also restored his pace by gaining a gold medal in the Men's Medley 400m, and thereby becoming a 5-medal champion. Florence Griffith-Joyner took first place in the Women's Athletics 100m with a winning time of 10.54 seconds.
Lee Gyeong-Keun(Korean) added another gold medal in Judo half-light weight division, following Kim Jae-Yeob. This victory gave additional pleasure to Koreans who were already happy celebrating Korean Thanksgiving Day.
In Men's Athletics 800m, the Kenyan Paul Ereng outlasted Said Aouita from Morocco, and even left behind the Brazilian Joaquim Cruz who was on a quest for another gold medal, to reach the finish line with the record time of 1 minute and 43.45 seconds, giving rise to the black boom.
olympic04-dt11.jpg olympic04-dt12.jpg
On this day, 5 billion people around the globe watching the Olympics on the TV experienced a huge shock and disappointment. The IOC made a shocking announcement that Ben Johnson, who defeated Carl Lewis with an unbelievable record time of 9.79 in the Men's 100m Sprint, would be stripped away his gold medal and record of accomplishment due to doping.
Greg Louganis, the American diving king, attained another gold medal in the Platform in addition to the Springboard.
West Germany beat Italy in the Fencing Fleuret Women's Group finals, by a huge margin of 45-15.
Sergei Bubka, who had surpassed his own world records as many as 9 times since 1983, set another world record of 5.8m in the Pole Jump finals, finally snatching a gold medal. In this game, the Soviet Union swept all the medals.
olympic04-dt13.jpg olympic04-dt14.jpg
The Korean women's handball team won the first gold medal among Korea's ball games by beating the world's best Soviet Union 21-19, showing an improvement from its silver medal in the previous LA Olympics.
Alexander Kurlovich from the Soviet Union, in the top weight-lifting class, set a new record by lifting a total of 426.5kg including 212.5kg for the snatch and 259kg for the jerk, thus rewriting weight lifting history.
Korea dominated the world in Women's Archery and Women's Table Tennis. In particular, Kim Su-Nyeong, Wang Hui-Gyeong, and Yoon Yeong-Sook swept gold, silver and bronze medals with 344, 332 and 327 points respectively in the Women's Archery Individual finals.
In the finals of Women's Table Tennis Doubles which was newly added to the Seoul Olympics, the Korean team composed of Yang Yeong-Ja and Hyeon Jeong-Hwa smashed its Chinese counterpart of Jiao Zhimin and Chen Jing 21-19, 16-21 and 21-10.
In the Women's Field Hockey finals, new and powerful Korea lost to Australia 0-2, but ended up with a huge achievement by placing in second place in its first participation in the Olympics.
olympic04-dt15.jpg olympic04-dt16.jpg
With the closing only a day away, a total 13 games with 39 medals were scheduled for today.
Korea obtained "World Hegemony" in Archery by acquiring gold medals both in the Men's and Women's Group finals, and the Table Tennis Men's Singles finals where the two Korean athletes Yoo Nam-Gyu and Kim Gi-Taek competed for the gold medal. Yoo became the champion.
In the Soccer finals, the Soviet Union defeated Brazil to get back its first gold medal in the 32 years since the Melbourne Olympics.
On the final day of the Olympics, finals of 9 games including the Men's Marathon were conducted, bringing the 16-day-long Olympics to an end. The Italian marathoner Gelindo Bordin won the Men's Marathon, the final event of the Olympics, making an impressive final moment of competition drama.
Among the six Boxing games, Korean Kim Gwang-Seon and Park Shi-Gyeon earned gold medals in Flyweight and Light-middle weights, respectively.

 

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